The Vacuum Effect or Why Removing Outdoor Cats Won’t Eliminate Outdoor Cats


https://4fi8v2446i0sw2rpq2a3fg51-wpengine.netdna-ssl.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/5FastFacts-FeralCatsandtheVacuumEffect.pdf

https://www.alleycat.org/resources/the-vacuum-effect-why-catch-and-kill-doesnt-work/https://www.humanesociety.org/resources/outdoor-cats-faq

https://resources.bestfriends.org/article/frequently-asked-questions-about-tnr#:~:text=In%20the%20long%20term%2C%20TNR,manage%20these%20community%20cat%20populations.